How to Reduce Nitrates and Alkalinity in a Koi Pond?

Answer Koi ponds add an appealing visual element to a backyard or landscape, but they need to be maintained to keep the fish healthy. Changes in weather and build-up of chemicals affect the alkalinity and... Read More »

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How to Lower Nitrates in a Koi Pond?

Nitrites, commonly called nitrates, are a group of chemicals found in koi ponds that are made by a colony of beneficial bacteria that consumes or breaks down the koi waste. Nitrite levels increase ... Read More »

How to Lower Nitrates in a Pond?

Nitrates are a natural byproduct of animal and fish waste. Bacteria convert fish waste into ammonia, which is converted into less-harmful nitrites, which are then converted into nitrates that feed ... Read More »

What Is Carbonate Alkalinity?

Carbonate alkalinity measures the amount of negatively charged carbonate and bicarbonate atoms in a solution. Bicarbonate ions consist of a hydrogen atom, a carbon atom, and three oxygen atoms, and... Read More »

How to Calculate Alkalinity From pH?

Alkalinity is an important water characteristic that quantifies the capacity of water to accept hydrogen ions H+. Concentration of H+ expressed as "pH" determines the acidity of a solution. Alkalin... Read More »